The Washington, D.C.-based council represents 67 of the nation's larger urban school systems. The conference, which will be held at the new downtown Convention Center, is expected to draw about 1,000 people.
The council announced the selection at the 2014 conference, held last week in Milwaukee.
"This is a big win," District Chief Executive Officer Eric Gordon said. "It says a lot about what's going on in our community."
Cleveland last hosted the conference in the 1960s.